The most important activity performed by the power sectors are, power generation, power transmission and power distribution.

Electricity is generated at different power stations then it is transmitted through various channels like power transformers, transmission lines and transmission substations to the distribution substations, finally distribution substations distribute the electrical energy to residential and commercial consumers. The basic components of an electric power system are, power generation plant,step-up distribution substation, step-down distribution substation,transmission lines and distribution system.

power generation plant: A power generation plant is a facility that produces electric power from various sources they can be classified as conventional power and renewable power sources, the various types of conventional power sources are coal, gas, oil(diesel), nuclear energy and hydro-electric power and the various types of renewable power sources are solar power, thermal energy and wind energy, basically, all power stations adopt identical technique to provide electricity. a turbine is caused to rotate. This electricity is shipped out through transmission lines to a distribution station of the electricity board. In hydro electricity power stations, the turnine is turned by flowing water.

Coal based power plant : That generates power by using coal, gas, oil(diesel), when they burns that produces heat, this heat is used to boil water to produce steam, this steam turns a turbine the turbine drives a generator which produces electricity, this electricity is passed through transformers to produce electric power of the desired voltage.

Coal based power plant

Hydroelectric power plant :
To run a Hydroelectric power plant a dam is built on a large river this is to create a substantial drop in the elevation, the force of the flowing water turns the turbine propeller , the shaft of the turbine is linked to a generator which produces electricity solar photo-voltaic generation produces energy by
using either parabolic troughs or heliostats, these are sun tracking mirrors, the central tower type of solar thermal power plant uses hundreds or thousands of mirrors direct sun light on to a receiver on top of a tower, the steam turns the turbine that drives the electrical generators.

droelectric power plant

Nuclear power plant: In a nuclear reactor fuel rod are placed in water these rods release energy, this energy heats the water creating steam. The steam moves through a turbine and turns the generator to produce electricity, later the steam condenses into water which is used again.

Nuclear power plant

wind power plant: As the wind glows over the blades of a wind turbine it causes the blade to lift and rotate. the rotating blades turn the shaft connected to a generator, the generator produces electricity a it turns, the electric current generated in the power plant as to reach consumers for this purposes several substations are arranged between the generating stations and the consumers. A substation is an electrical system with high voltage. . It is used to convert generated voltage to EHV for transmission of power to long distances to the load centers through transmission and distribution system. The electric power flows through several substations of different voltage levels before it reaches the consumer. The various types of substations are used to transmit electric power are, step-up transmission substation, step-down transmission substation, distribution substation and underground distribution substation.

wind power plant

Transmission line: Transmission line carry electric energy from one point to another point through an electric power system. The transmission lines are operated at relatively high voltage, this is to transmit large quantity of power over long distance. Overhead transmission line carry large quantities of power at EHV to long distances, the voltage varies based on the grid to which they belong between 66kv to 765kv. Sub-transmission lines carry voltage reduced at lower voltage from major transmission line systems, the voltage is between 33kv to 66kv, voltage is step down to 11kv at the substation and then to 400v through distribution substation for use of industrial,commercial, agriculture and domestic consumers. Electric current is distributed to the consumers through a distribution system, the distribution system originate at 33/11kv grid substation and consists of many facility and equipment they are line, poles, transformers and other equipment is needed to transmit the electric power to the consumers place at the required voltage.

Components of distribution system: A substation is a high-voltage electric system facility, it is used to step-up the voltage for transmission at long distances and then step-down the voltage for distribution of power. Distribution feeder circuit are the connection between the output terminals of a distribution substation and to the input terminals of the primary circuit. Sectionalising switches (GO switches) are installed at strategic locations to redirect or cut-off power flows for load balancing. Protective equipment are consists of protective relay, cutout switches, disconnect switches, lightning restorers and fuses. Primary circuits are the distribution circuits that carry power from grid substations(33/11kv,66/11kv) to substations(11kv) lines to local load areas. Distribution transformers are reduce the voltage of the primary circuit to the voltage required by the consumers. Secondary distribution system includes the LT feeders originating at the low-voltage secondary winding of a distribution transformer. Service wire is the wire extending from the secondary or distribution transformer to a consumer’s location. To greater operational efficiency for better load management we need to deliver quality services to our customers.

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Sachidananda Dhar

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